Unicode conversion of the CATSS LXXM text

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  1. Guidelines for the Morphological Analysis of the LXX
  2. The following guidelines were used by the staff of Computer-Assisted Tools for Septuagint Studies (CATSS) in preparing the Morphologically Analyzed Septuagint.
  3. A) USING HATCH AND REDPATH:
  4. In general, Hatch-Redpath is considered the final arbiter for
  5. questions of morphological analysis (there are exceptions, however,
  6. outlined in what follows). Thus many problems which are likely to arise
  7. can be settled by consulting Hatch-Redpath. These include questions of
  8. a) spelling; b) determining the lexical entry of a word; and c) parsing.
  9. a) Spelling:
  10. Frequently, the morph program errs in its spelling, since the
  11. stems were based on classical literature. We are correcting these
  12. entries as they arise, but many others have yet to be detected. When
  13. you find inconsistencies in orthography, make sure they are corrected in
  14. line with Hatch and Redpath, not Liddell and Scott.
  15. If Hatch and Redpath give several different spellings,
  16. choose the first. This is an arbitrary but necessary expedient.
  17. b) Using H-R to determine the lexical entry:
  18. There are numerous cases in which it is difficult to decide what
  19. the lexical entry should be. Here are a few examples which occur
  20. repeatedly: 1) TI\ (meaning why) Is this from TI/ or TI/S? 2) OU(= (meaning
  21. where). Should this be derived from OU(= or O(/S? 3) OU(/TWS (meaning
  22. thus). From OU(/TWS or OU(=TOS? 4) I)DOU/ (meaning behold). From I)DOU/
  23. or O(RA/W? 5) KU/KLW| (meaning around). From the preposition KU/KLW| or from KU/KLOS?
  24. To settle these and related problems you should consult H-R to
  25. see how these words are handled. Note, for example that I)DOU/ is
  26. a separate entry from O(RA/W; KU/KLW| is under the entry KU/KLOS;
  27. OU(= is under the entry OU(=; OU(/TWS under OU(/TWS; etc.
  28. c) Using H-R to solve parsing problems:
  29. Morphological analysis can often be extremely difficult because of the
  30. inherent ambiguities of some words. Take, for example, the words already
  31. cited above. How should they be handled? Should KU/KLW| be parsed as a
  32. preposition when it is used as a preposition, or as a DSM noun from
  33. KU/KLOS? No clear-cut answer can be given to cover all cases. The most one
  34. can strive for is consistency.
  35. Again, H-R can be of some limited assistance in the analysis. Since H-R
  36. (as against Arndt and Gingrich, which has KU/KLW| as a separate lexical
  37. entry) lists KU/KLW| under KU/KLOS (see above, b), this would mean that
  38. it is a declinable form from that noun. Thus, since we have opted to adhere
  39. to H-R, your analysis should look like this:
  40. KU/KLW| N2 DSM KU/KLOS, (not as a preposition).
  41. On the other hand, take the form I)DOU/. Note that since H-R
  42. lists this as a separate form from O(RA/W, I)DOU/ should not be
  43. treated as an imperative from O(RA/W, but as an interjection. Your
  44. analysis should, therefore, look like this: I)DOU/ I I)DOU/ (the
  45. 'I' should go in the type field).
  46. B) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
  47. For those cases in which H-R does not prove helpful, the
  48. general rule of thumb is to limit yourself as narrowly as possible to
  49. "morphological analysis" and not worry excessively about the syntactic
  50. problems of the word. Of course, it should be recognized that there are
  51. instances in which it is necessary to make some decision about a word's
  52. function in a sentence before you can make a proper identification.
  53. Some of the cases in which this is necessary include KAI/ (adverb or
  54. conjunction); E)NANTI/ON (preposition or adverb); E)NW/PION (preposition
  55. or adverb). You should examine the sentence and make your decision
  56. accordingly.
  57. Order of non-alphabetic symbols. These symbols should go in the
  58. following order: 1) breathing; 2) accent; 3) iota subscript; and
  59. 4) diaeresis.
  60. C) THE "FIELDS" OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS FILE
  61. 1) Lemma (text) field (left column):
  62. This column should list the word as it appears in
  63. Rahlfs' text. All punctuation and all extraneous signs (brackets,
  64. parentheses, etc.) should be removed. (Punctuation should be removed
  65. only at the very last stage of correction.) Words which are capitalized
  66. in Rahlfs' text (due to beginning a quotation, etc.)
  67. but which are not proper nouns (according to H-R) should
  68. have the asterisk removed, and their breathing and accent marks
  69. should be rearranged as for a non-capitalized word.
  70. 2) Dictionary field (right column):
  71. In general, each word should appear in the dictionary column in the
  72. form in which it is listed in Hatch-Redpath, except that verbs
  73. are listed in PAI1S rather than infinitive form, and verbal prefixes
  74. are separated from the root. (Several other exceptions are noted in what
  75. follows.) An especially significant variation from Hatch-Redpath
  76. occurs in the treatment of proper nouns: see section D 1).
  77. N.B.: Verbs are the only words which should have "prefixes"
  78. separated in the main dictionary entry.
  79. 3) Type and parse codes:
  80. The "typing" and "parsing" of a word should conform to the
  81. form of the word listed in the dictionary field (see above).
  82. The general principle is that a word is "typed" as it is used in
  83. the text, rather than by some preconceived notion of its "ideal"
  84. type or by an original or prototypical "type" (e.g. as it is used
  85. in Attic Greek style). Type and parse coding is outlined on an
  86. accompanying sheet. Consult the creed for possible complications
  87. such as treatment of numbers, substantives, and adverbs.
  88. For the parsing of proper nouns, consult section D 1).
  89. D) SPECIFIC CATEGORIES OF WORDS
  90. 1) Proper Nouns
  91. Here a substantial deviation from Hatch-Redpath occurs.
  92. The lemma (text) forms of proper nouns should be left as in Rahlfs'
  93. text. The form entered in the dictionary column should Dconform to that
  94. suggested by Rahlfs' text. THAT IS: If the textual lemma form
  95. in Rahlfs' text (and thus in the lemma column of the morph. analysis)
  96. 1) is accented, 2) has a breathing mark, and/or 3) is inflected,
  97. provide for these features in the dictionary column. If the
  98. textual lemma form lacks any of these features, omit them from the
  99. dictionary column. Breathing marks and accents (in that order)
  100. which go with the initial letter(s) of a proper noun should
  101. be placed after the '*' and before the first letter of the noun,
  102. as in ordinary Greek usage.
  103. BPARSING OF PROPER NOUNS: If the textual lemma form is inflected
  104. (and the dictionary column thus records a Nom. Sing. form),
  105. parse the word as you would any other noun. If it is not inflected,
  106. place 'N' alone in the type code, and parse as fully as possible.
  107. 2) Adverbs
  108. Adverbs are normally listed in H-R separately, under their own
  109. form. Since the MORPH program often derives adverbs from an
  110. adjectival or other form, output must be corrected in
  111. accordance with H-R. Provided that H-R lists the adverb separately, it
  112. should be "typed" only as 'D', and the adverb itself should be
  113. listed in the dictionary column. "Prefixes" should never be
  114. separated from an adverb in the dictionary column.
  115. 3) Prepositions
  116. Any word clearly used as a preposition in syntactical
  117. function (regardless of its lexical or grammatical derivation),
  118. and listed in its prepositional form in H-R, should be "typed"
  119. only as 'P'.
  120. 4) Numbers:
  121. All indeclinable cardinal numbers should be parsed only as
  122. 'M' (in the type field). Declinable numbers should be treated as
  123. any other adjective. The only declinable numbers between 1 and 20
  124. are EI(=S (1), TREI=S (3), and TE/SSARES (4). EI(=S is A3 in
  125. masc. and neut. forms and A1A in fem. forms. TREI=S and TE/SSARES
  126. are A3.
  127. The lexical forms EI(=S, E(/N, and TREI=S are parsed by the
  128. MORPH program as 'M' and should be corrected to A3.
  129. The "indeclinable" number 2 (DU/O) does have several declinable forms
  130. [mainly DUSI/(N)]. DU/O should be typed only as 'M'. DUSI/(N) should be
  131. typed as 'M,' and should be fully parsed as well (as plural, not dual).
  132. 5) Substantives:
  133. On the question of substantives and whether to parse them as nouns
  134. or adjectives: If an adjective is consistently used as a
  135. noun, parse it as a noun. An example of this is E)/RHMOS, which
  136. LSJ identifies as an adjective. However, since this is consistently
  137. used as a nominal form in the LXX, it should be parsed as a noun.
  138. The same applies to E(RPETO/N (N2N, not A1) and PETEINO/N
  139. (N2N, not A1).
  140. 6) Adjectives and adverbs of degree (compar. and superl.):
  141. a) In fourth column of parse field, indicate 'C' or 'S' if
  142. it is an irregular form.
  143. b) Check Hatch-Redpath to see if comparative or superlative form
  144. is a separate entry. If so, list the comparative or
  145. superlative form itself in the dictionary column.
  146. To assist in the morph process, we include here a description of
  147. problem words, and the ways we have solved them.
  148. (*THIS FILE CONTAINS A LIST OF PROBLEM WORDS IN THE MORPH ANALYSIS; PLEASE
  149. FEEL FREE TO CONSULT THIS FILE OR ADD TO IT WORDS THAT ARE CREATING
  150. HARDSHIP, as long as such additions are approved by the council of
  151. elders.*)
  152. I.] GENERAL NOTES (Arranged alphabetically by key word):
  153. ADJECTIVES and adverbs of degree (comparative and superlative):
  154. see above, section D 6).
  155. When Hatch-Redpath gives ALTERNATE forms of a word, such as
  156. BORE/AS, BORE/HS, BORRA=S, use the first choice as the dictionary
  157. form, even if one of the others is closer to the form actually found
  158. in the text you are parsing. The following are exceptions:
  159. a) OU(/TWS (dict. form should be OU(/TWS, not OU(/TW contra H-R).
  160. b) PROPER NAMES containing an I/EI variant (we, with Rahlfs,
  161. use the I form).
  162. c) E)SQI/W, not E)/SQW
  163. d) A)RGUROU=S, not A)RGU/REOS
  164. ASTERISKED words: In the case of proper nouns, make sure
  165. not to remove the asterisks from either column. All other words
  166. (verbs, common nouns, etc.) should have asterisks removed from both
  167. columns [see sections C 1) and D 1)].
  168. CRASIS:
  169. KA)GW\ C+RP NS KAI/ + E)GW/
  170. KA)\N C+X KAI/ + A)/N
  171. MIDDLE vs. Passive:
  172. Always distinguish these, even though the MORPH program parses
  173. all ambiguous forms as Middle.
  174. Prepositional PREFIXES for verbs--List the prefix separately only
  175. if the unprefixed verb is attested as a form in its own right
  176. (consult unabridged Liddell-Scott).
  177. The following words, while not adhering strictly to H-R, should not be
  178. changed, but should remain as the PROGRAM analyzes them:
  179. --MI verbs
  180. All PROPER NOUNS should be fully parsed, as far as possible, in
  181. case, number and gender. If any of these are unclear, leave a blank.
  182. (See section D 1).)
  183. Examples of SUBSTANTIVES:
  184. E(RPETO/N N2N parse E(RPETO/N
  185. PETEINO/N N2N parse PETEINO/N
  186. E)XQRO/S N2 parse E)XQRO/S
  187. E)/RHMOS N2 parse E)/RHMOS
  188. HOWEVER, the following words should be parsed as ADJECTIVES:
  189. A)/RSHN
  190. QH=LUS
  191. H(/MISUS
  192. SUBSTANTIVES: See also section D 5).
  193. For treatment of the various "types" of THIRD DECLENSION nouns and
  194. adjectives (N3E, N3I, A3C, etc.), see the appended materials.
  195. II.] SPECIFIC WORDS (Arranged in Roman alphabetical order):
  196. A)F' OU(= . See under OU(= .
  197. Forms of A)MFO, A)MFO/TEROS, &c., are parsed by the program as A)MFW.
  198. This should be corrected to:
  199. A1A appropriate parse A)MFO/TEROI (see H-R).
  200. A)NA\ ME/SON: ME/SON should be neuter (see BAG, s.v. ME/SOS, #2):
  201. A)NA\ P A)NA/
  202. ME/SON A1 ASN ME/SOS
  203. Similarly: E)K ME/SOU and E)N ME/SW|
  204. Prefer: A)RGUROU=S to A)RGU/REOS
  205. XALKOU=S to XA/LKOUS
  206. XRUSOU=S to XRU/SEOS.
  207. A)RGUROU=S . See also under ALTERNATE.
  208. A)/RSHN . See under SUBSTANTIVES VS. ADJECTIVES.
  209. TO\ DEU/TERON: Frequently, this expression is adverbial, meaning
  210. the "second time." Both forms should, however, be parsed as
  211. ASN.
  212. TO\ RP ASN O(
  213. DEU/TERON A3 ASN DEU/TEROS
  214. DU/0 . See above, section D 4).
  215. E)/GGISTA-- parse as adverb from E)GGU/S:
  216. E)/GGISTA D E)GGU/S
  217. E)NANTI/ON and E)NW/PION:
  218. In order to analyze these forms, you must determine whether they
  219. function as prepositions or adverbs. Since the program always parses
  220. them as adverbs, you may have to make the necessary corrections.
  221. When these forms are prepositions, the analysis should be:
  222. E)NANTI/ON P E)NANTI/ON
  223. E)NW/PION P E)NW/PION
  224. The same applies to E(/WS, O)PI/SW, E)/NANTI, PLH/N, PE/RAN, E)/CW,
  225. O)/PISQEN, U(PERA/NW, U(POKA/TW and U(POKA/TWQEN. When used as
  226. prepositions indicate only with 'P' in type column.
  227. E)PA/NW: This word is sometimes used as a preposition, sometimes
  228. as an adverb: parse accordingly.
  229. E)/RHMOS . See under SUBSTANTIVES VS. ADJECTIVES.
  230. E(RPETO/N . See under SUBSTANTIVES VS. ADJECTIVES.
  231. E)RW= : All forms should be parsed under EI)=PON in dictionary column.
  232. Similarly for its derivatives, EI)/RHKA and E)RRE/QHN.
  233. E)SQI/W . See under ALTERNATE.
  234. E(/WS OU(= :
  235. E(/WS P E(/WS
  236. OU(= RR GSM O(/S (agreeing with implied XRONOU).
  237. The same applies to OU(= in A)F' OU(= .
  238. E)XO/MENA: When this word is used in "frozen" form as a preposition,
  239. parse as V1 PMPAPN from E)/XW
  240. E)XQRO/S . See under SUBSTANTIVES VS. ADJECTIVES.
  241. H(/MISUS . See under SUBSTANTIVES VS. ADJECTIVES.
  242. I)DOU/ :
  243. When it means "behold," it should be parsed as an interjection (I),
  244. following H-R. The output should be corrected, since the program
  245. consistently parses this word as an aorist imperative from O(RA/W.
  246. I)DOU\ I I)DOU/
  247. KA)GW\ . See under CRASIS.
  248. KA)\N . See under CRASIS.
  249. KAI/ : Be sure to distinguish between conjunctival and
  250. adverbial use. If it is an adverb, simply put D in the type field
  251. (not C in the type field and D in the parse field).
  252. a) Also note that with a subordinate construction (especially
  253. when the subordinate clause is introduced by E)A/N),
  254. KAI/ will frequently introduce the main clause.
  255. KAQA/: Program declines as a preposition [KATA/ + O(/S], but this
  256. word is more correctly parsed as an adverb. The same applies to
  257. KAQA/PER, KAQO/TI and KAQO/. Thus:
  258. KAQA/ D KAQA/
  259. KAQA/PER D KAQA/PER
  260. KAQO/TI D KAQO/TI
  261. KAQO/ D KAQO/
  262. KU/KLW|: Although this is sometimes used as a preposition or adverb,
  263. simply give it as N2 DSM from KU/KLOS (pace H-R).
  264. MAKRA/N: When used adverbially it should be marked:
  265. MAKRA\N D MAKRA/N (see H-R).
  266. A)NA\ ME/SON: ME/SON should be neuter (see BAG, s.v. ME/SOS, #2):
  267. A)NA\ P A)NA/
  268. ME/SON A1 ASN ME/SOS
  269. Similarly: E)K ME/SOU and E)N ME/SW|
  270. Watch for O(/, which is frequently misparsed by the morph program
  271. as a masculine relative pronoun (should be neuter).
  272. O)/LLUMI or O)LLU/W--choose the latter.
  273. O(RA/W and OI)=DA: A slight deviation from H-R occurs here.
  274. All words under EI)DEI=N in H-R should be parsed under the dictionary
  275. form OI)=DA (these will be Perfects or Pluperfects). For
  276. forms which H-R has under O(RA/W, continue to use the same
  277. word, i.e. O(RA/W. For forms in H-R under I)DEI=N, parse under
  278. O(RA/W (these will be 2 Aorists).
  279. OU(=, from O(/S (meaning where): Since H-R has this under
  280. a separate lemma [OU(=], it should be parsed as follows:
  281. OU(= D OU(=
  282. [N.B. In H-R, this applies only to OU(= when it means "where".
  283. When OU(= has the adverbial meaning of "when" --as for example,
  284. with E(/WS--then it should be parsed as RR GSM from O(/S.]
  285. E(/WS OU(= :
  286. E(/WS P E(/WS
  287. OU(= RR GSM O(/S (agreeing with implied XRONOU).
  288. The same applies to OU(= in A)F' OU(= .
  289. OU(/TWS: Although the program handles OU(/TWS as an adverb from
  290. OU(=TOS, it should be an adverb from OU(/TWS (pace H-R):
  291. OU(/TWS D OU(/TWS
  292. OU(/TWS . See also under ALTERNATE.
  293. PANTOS in DIA/ PA/NTOS is masculine (sc. XRO/NOU).
  294. PETEINO/N . See under SUBSTANTIVES VS. ADJECTIVES.
  295. PLHSI/ON: Parse as an adverb (D), modified (usually) by a masculine
  296. article.
  297. PRO/TERON: Note that when it is adverbial, it is listed in H-R
  298. as a separate lexical entry. The following forms should be
  299. categorized carefully according to H-R:
  300. PRO/TERON, PRO/TEROS, PRW=TON, PRW=TOS.
  301. TO\ PRWI/+ :
  302. TO\ RA ASN O(
  303. PRWI/+ D PRWI/+
  304. QH=LUS . See under SUBSTANTIVES VS. ADJECTIVES.
  305. TI/ , in its meaning "why," should be listed as:
  306. TI\ RI ASN TI/S
  307. because it is so listed in Hatch-Redpath.
  308. In I(/NA TI (sc. GE/NHTAI), TI/ O(/TI (sc. GE/GONEN), and
  309. TI/ GA/R: TI should be nominative.
  310. TI/S and TIS: These forms should be carefully distinguished (see H-R).
  311. The interrogative form (TI/S) always has an acute accent on the first
  312. syllable; the indefinite (TIS) is either unaccented, or accented on
  313. the second syllable (and is enclitic).
  314. XALKOU=S . See under A)RGUROU=S.
  315. XRUSOU=S . See under A)RGUROU=S.